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فردیناند ماژلان | دریانورد و جهانگرد پرتغالی

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دلیل شهرت

فردیناند یک دریانورد پرتغالی بود که در ارتش اسپانیا به فعالیت می پرداخت. او نخستین فردی است که از جهت غرب از قاره اروپا به قاره آسیا رفت و در اقیانوس آرام به کشتیرانی پرداخت.

به او به عنوان نخستین فرد، ماموریت دور زدن به دور کره زمین داده شد که البته در میانه های سفر خود درگذشت اما یاران او توانستند این ماموریت را به پایان برسانند.

فردیناند ماژلان


فردیناند و همراهانش کشفیات زیادی در طی سفرهای خود داشتند. مواردی همچون:

* کشف گذرگاه میان دو اقیانوس اطلس و آرام ,,,,,,,,,, (ادامه مطلب را مشاهده فرمایید)


منبع: سایت کارناوال 

* مشاهده شتر بی کوهان در آمریکای جنوبی که گمان می رود لاما بوده باشد.

* دیدن پنگوئن ها

* رصد ۲ کهکشان که تنها از نیمکره جنوبی قابل رویت هستند که به ابرهای ماژالان شهرت یافتند.

* مشخص کردن محیط کره زمین

* اهمیت و ضرورت یک خط تاریخ بین المللی. بدون وجود چنین خط فرضی افراد و دریانوردانی که از سمت غرب به دور کره زمین می گردند، یک روز از تقویم واقعی عقب می ماندند!

تولد

او در فصل بهار سال ۱۴۸۰ میلادی در شهر ویلا رئال یکی از شهرهای شمالی کشور پرتغال به دنیا آمد.

زندگی

 فردیناند در خانواده ای ثروتمند و اشرافی چشم به حهان گشود، اما در سن ۱۰ سالگی والدین خود را از دست داد و به نزد برادرش در لیسبون رفت و مشغول به کار به عنوان پیشخدمت در دربار شاه جان دوم شد. او در زمینه های ستاره شناسی و جغرافیا به تحصیلات پرداخت و در سال ۱۴۹۶ به مقام سلحشوری رسید. او ماموریت های زیادی را در ارتش پرتغال انجام داد، اما به دلایل مشکلات زیادی که در حیت ماموریت هایش پیش آمد و پس از آن خلع درجه به ارتش اسپانیا پیوست. طی ماموریتش به دور زدن دنیا مناطق زیادی را مورد بازدید قرار داد.

مرگ

در ۲۷ آپریل سال ۱۵۲۱ میلادی ماژالان و همراهانشان از خط استوا عبور کردند و پس از آن به جزایر ماریانا و فیلیپین رسیدند. او به دلیل همراه داشتن مترجم به زبان مالایایی به راحتی با مردم بومی ارتباط برقرا می کرد. پس از گذر از چند جزیره به سمت جزایر سبو رفتند در ابتدا با ماژالان  همراهنشان رفتار خوب و دوستانه ای شد و حتی اهالی جزیره به دین مسیحیت گرویدند اما جزیره مجاور لاپو لاپو با آن ها به هیچ وجه دوستانه رفتار نکردند و هرگز حاضر به مطیع اسپانیا شدن، نبودند و جنگ با فردیناند ماژالان پرداختند و او در نبرد با مردم بومی شکست خورد و در ۲۷ آوریل ۱۵۲۱ کشته شد.

آنتونیو پیگافتا منشی و همراه ماژلان که کتاب سفرنامه وی را نوشته است از مرگ او اینگونه نقل می کند:

” با دمیدن صبح ما [سوار بر قایق‌ها به راه افتادیم تا] به فاصلهٔ دو تیر پرتاب از ساحل رسیدیم. صخره‌های زیر آب اجازه نمی‌داد که پیشتر برویم؛ پس چهل و نه نفر از افراد ما به آب که تا ران‌هایشان می‌رسید پریدند و باقی‌مانده راه را پیاده پیمودند. یازده نفر هم ماندند تا نگهبان قایق‌ها باشند. در خشکی سه گروه از بومیان جنگجو به شمار بیش از یک هزار و پانصد نفر انتظارمان را می‌کشیدند و به محض روبرو شدن، با فریادهای گوشخراش به ما حمله آوردند… تفنگچیان و کمانداران ما از فاصلهٔ نیم ساعتی شروع به شلیک کردند ولی بی‌فایده بود… با شناختن ناخدا گروهی از بومیان چنان بر وی هجوم بردند که کلاه‌خود را از سرش انداختند. یکیشان نیزه خیزرانی را به طرف صورت او انداخت ولی خود با ضربت نیزه ناخدا از پای درآمد. ناخدا خواست که دست به شمشیر برد ولی با زخمی که بر بازویش وارد آمده بود، نتوانست. جنگجویان که چنین دیدند، با هم بر او حمله‌ور شدند. یک بومی با قمه بر پای چپ او زخم زد که سبب شد ناخدا با صورت به زمین افتد. بومیان هم با نیزه و قمه بر سرش ریختند و او را که آیینه و نور ما و راهنمای واقعی ما بود، به قتل رساندند . در حین نبرد او بارها سربرگرداند تا از رسیدن همه افرادش به قایق‌ها اطمینان یابد و ما که شاهد کشته شدنش بودیم، مجروح و خسته به قایق‌هایمان عقب‌نشینی کردیم.”


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